AT • WORK
- JULY 15 ~ AUGUST I ,
A NEWS SHEET FOR. INDIANS
AND THE INDIAN SERVICE
OFFICE -OF* INDIAN -AFFAIRS
CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF JULY 15 - AUGUST 1, 1937
Edi to rial John Coll ier 1
New Indian Welfare Organization Formed
Through Merger Of Two Existing Groups 5
The Tan Oak, Friend Of The Hoopa Valley In-
dians: Shall We Destroy It? Leonard B. Radtke 7
Charter News 11
Districts For Headquarters Of Supervisory
Personnel Are Coordinated 13
Oscar H. Lipps 15
Crime Prevention Among Indians Wayne L . Morse 16
Report On Pension Bill Tells Story Of
Wounded Knee Massacre 26
No Federal Aid For This Sioux Girll Rose S. Hallam 29
Fort Hall Leaders Speak At " Indian Day"
At Pocat ello , Idaho 31
Early Indians Of Montana 34
Indian Claims Commission Bill Defeated 36
A Trader On The Fort Peck Reservation
In Montana Speaks G. A. Lundeen 37
Fighting One of Agriculture's Great Plagues
At Western Shoshone Agency 38
Navajo Tribal Council Sends Delegates To
Testify In Senate Subcommittee Hearings 40
Indian Office Policy Summarized John Collier 41
Public Health Work Among Children At The
Cheyenne River Agency. South Dakota .. Phoebe Sheppard 43
The Heirship Land Problem - An Answer
Suggested C. R. Beaulieu 45
Visitors In The Washington Office 46
Cover Design 46
Mexican Novel Gives Vivid Interpretation
Of Indian Life D' Arcy McNickle 47
New Name For I.E.C.W 48
From I.E.C.W. Reports (CCC - ID) 49
Consideration is "being given to
changes in the form and organization of
"Indians At Work." Pending decisions on
these changes, it will he necessary to
omit several issues.
cttaa -i;T*rj«. Indian Sor>\/i]ce>
? V i
VOL. IT - JULY 15-AUGU5T 1, 1937 * : RQ £3-24
Without critics, and opposition, no administration knows
its own strengths. It may know its own weaknesses; tut only through
its critics (and the self-searching which they occasion) is it like-
ly to know its own strengths.
This remark is occasioned particularly "by recent Senate
hearings devoted to complaints by Navajos. Here are the main facts
fully established through the hearings.
1. Through three and a half years, the Navajo Council
endorsed. - and actively supported - every major policy of the pres-
ent Indian Office. The endorsed policies included agency consolida-
tion, the establishment of land-use-management districts, the sub-
stitution of day school for boarding school development, the land
consolidation policies and, above all, the stock reduction and range
management policies. Nevertheless,
2. The Navajo Council itself believed that it was in-
sufficiently representative and on November 24 last, adopted a res-
olution to reorganize. The goal of reorganization was an electoral
system wide-based on the eighteen land management districts. To a
council so reorganized, wider responsibilities might be given.
Though knowing that a safe equilibrium might give place
to turmoil, for a while, the Indian Office reported Yes to the Coun-
cil's proposal. Months of a canvass of the entire tribe by the Coun-
cil's committee ensued; and there emerged the Navajo Constitutional
Assembly, which became also the interim tribal council. The Assembly
through a special committee proceeded to draw a constitution. Its
work is not finished yet, but enough is done to make it already cer-
tain that the largest Indian tribe will create a self-government en-
tirely modern and yet deliberately infused with traditional elements
peculiar to the Navajos.
The new tribal government, incidentally, will be totally
divorced from the Indian Office, i. e., no regular employee of the
government may sit in the new tribal legislature.
3. I have called attention in earlier editorials to the
record which Indian tribes are making in that most necessary but
most onerous part of soil conservation - the reduction of live stock.
Particularly striking have been the actions by Laguna and Acoma
Pueblos across two years past.
But no tribe depends on sheep to the intense degree of the
Navajos. Probably sheep mean more in the consciousness of the Navajos
than of any other tribe.
I have pointed out that reduction programs in all recent
or known range history have had to he forced through by authority -
that white live stock men, using land not individually their own,
never have voluntarily made the sacrifices necessary to range con-
Well - the Navajo grazing regulations are now promulgated.
They are a document unique to Navajo-land alone, and they are the
product of the Navajo Council's grazing committee - in conference
with the Agency, of course, hut acting as a body independent of the
These regulations deal comprehensively and precisely with
the whole problem of the range. Carried through with wisdom, they
will achieve all further needed reduction without cutting down the
breeding stock at all, and with a steady increase of wool yield and
But they come on the heels of three arduous "horizontal"
reduction campaigns, and they call for further and new efforts and
momentary sacrifices. The Navajo s, like the Acomas and the Lagunas,
voluntarily have gone forward. They have shown the way to all the
live stock interests of the great West. All of the above, the Senate
hearings fully establish.
Though rains have fallen to Bast and to West, at Fort
Peck, Montana, no rains have fallen. The condition of Indians and
their neighbors is desperate. Large expenditures from the new Re-
lief Act will he necessary to prevent complete human ruination in
the Port Peck area. Superintendent Hunter, accompanied by spokesmen
of the distressed whites, has "been in Washington, and help (not
adequate, but very substantial) is being supplied.
Another Senate hearing has dealt with Klamath, Oregon,
Indian matters. Former Superintendent Wade Crawford, removed on
charges May 15, 1937, made allegations that the Department had sur-
rendered to certain lumber companies and had forgiven, without
legal right so to do, advance payments due on allotment timber con-
tracts. Thereupon, the record was presented in full to the commit-
tee. It showed the Department standing fast though the lumber com-
panies wailed, though the Indian allottees signed the unfavorable
contracts, though Representatives and Senators and the States' s
Governor urged that the Department should yield - in order to com-
promise an arguable situation, and assist in relieving the serious
economic distress in the Klamath Palls region. Finally the com-
panies surrendered and signed to pay the delinquent advance payments
at the higher (the contract-base) rate instead of the lower (the
contract modification) rate.
The record overwhelmed Mr. Crawford on many other points
These notes are written flying to Denver. Washington
tlazed under humid heat, "but westward a giant cloud, tower-shaped,
rose from horizon nearly to the zenith.
Now, the Alleghenies a thousand feet "below, we hurtle
through an ominous twilight, just within or just "below that monster
cloud, and the plane shudders, drops, leaps, sways, and drops again.
We are riding strong swift "billows of a tropical storm, and the rain
hides the drenched mountains.
Tomorrow, at Boulder, Colorado, near Denver, the University
opens its course on Problems of the Indian.
Commissioner of Indian Affairs
NEW INDIAN WELFARE ORGANIZATION FORMED THROUGH MERGER OF
TWO EXISTING GROUPS
The American Indian Defense Association and the National Associa-
tion on Indian Affairs announce the formation, through the consolidation of
their respective memberships, of the American Association on Indian Affairs.
Officers of the new organization are: Oliver LaFarge, president;
Haven Emerson, M. D., first vice-president; Miss Amelia Elizabeth White, sec-
ond vice-president; Percy Jackson, controller; Mrs. John Rogers, Jr., secre-
tary; and Harold von Schmidt-, treasurer. The national office of the organi-
zation is at 120 East 57th Street, New York, N. T.
The first number of the new organization's official bulletin, "In-
dian Affairs", has been issued under date of June, 1937.
THE TAN OAK, FRIEND OF THE HOQPA VALLEY INDIANS; SHALL WE DESTBOY IT?
By Leonard B. Eadtke, Forest Supervisor, U. S. Indian Service
In the Northern California
country grows the magnificent tan oak
tree, friend and supporter of man. And
within some fifteen to twenty-five years
it will be gone - gone for a small cash
return to those who exploit it.
This great tree, which ia some-
times called a cross between an oak and
a chestnut, ranges along the Pacific
Coast from Southern Oregon to Central
California. It grows to a hundred and
fifty feet in height and is often four
feet in diameter.
Sac red To The Indians
The tan oak has been held
sacred by the Indians of the Hoopa Val-
ley and it figures in many of their
legends. According to their folklore,
a grove of these trees was miraculously
planted on the north bank of Mill Creek,
about a half-mile from its mouth. The
medicine men of olden times foretold
dire punishment to anyone who needless-
ly injured a tan oak. What was the
reason for this reverence? Perhaps be-
cause the tan oak's acorns furnished
one of the Indians' main food supplies
in early days and now. It has saved
thousands from starvation - white pio-
neers and forty-niners as well as In-
dians. Salmon and acorns - acorn soup
and acorn bread - have been the foundation diet of many Northern California
To this very day the Hoopa Indians hold an acorn festival, general-
ly in the early part of October.
Two Veterans Of The Sacred Grove
After The Acorn Ceremonial
(Medicine Woman On Left)
A medicine woman presides and proceeds to prepare a meal of acorn
soup from the newly matured acorns. One must never eat new acorns before
this festival. When the soup is ready, everyone eats. The rocks used in
cooking are then carefully placed upon a pile. New rocks are used each year
and the mound is a high one - the accumulation of rnsJiy years, lessened, how-
ever, by the occasional floods from the river.
Making Acorns Into Food - Then And Now
Every fall the Indians gathered the acorns in large "baskets. They
gathered them literally by the ton. The acorns were stored and as needed,
shelled and beaten to a flour. The next step was the removal of the tannin.
A shallow hole was dug in the sand and the acorns put in it. Water was poured
on and allowed to seep through into the sand. More and more was added until
all the tannin had been leached out. This process lasted about twenty-four
hours. The flour now had lost its tannin and with it the bitter taste.
After-removal from the sand pit, the flour was put into a water-
tight basket, water added and hot rocks dropped into the basket until the
mixture boiled. Result: acorn soupl
For bread, the moistened flour was fashioned into loaves and baked
on heated stones. It was not eaten as European bread was, but was taken on
hunting trips as rations. It was often moistened with water when eaten.
Today - some two hundred years later - the process is still identi-
cal except that the hand grinder has supplanted the stone mortar, a cloth
and colander the sand, a pot and cookstove the hot rocks, and water "basket and
a hake-oven the heated stones.
It is a wholesome, palatable and frugal food and no ill effects have
ever "been reported from its use. It tastes not unlike chestnuts.
Acorn s As Keystone Of Hoopa Valley Ind ians ' Economy
Not for man's food alone is the tan oak important. Practically all
of the Hoopa Valley Indians own hogs which range the forests. They are rarely
fed; the acorns keep them in prime condition.
It was estimated that the Indians near Hoopa sold about 5,000 hogs
during the spring of 1936 at an average price of $10 per head. Fifty thous-
and dollars worth of hogs I About half of tnese came from the reservation
while the remainder came from the Indian lands along the Klamath River. They
were raised practically on acorns, since little hand feeding was done. (Hog
buyers claim that they must pay less for acorn-fed hogs because the meat is
soft; consequently some corn feeding is necessary to bring top prices.) Cat-
tle too, depend partly on acorns for their winter range.
Acorns of the tan oak have been fed to chickens on the Hoopa with
very good results. One Indian said, "My wife peels and then grinds the acorns.
She feeds this meal to the young chickens. They like it." Turkeys also eat
the acorns with relish, apparently swallowing them whole.
During the fall of 1933 bears became unusually troublesome along
the Trinity and Klamath Rivers. They appeared literally by the hundreds, de-
stroying orchards, ruining gardens and raiding barnyards. Why did these
animals leave their sheltered haunts in the high mountains? They were hungry.
That year the acorn crop had failed and they had little to eat.
Deer, too, thrive on acorns. Fewer tan oaks mean fewer acorns and
fewer acorns mean less game.
Destruction Of The Tan Oak
And now this noble tree which has never done man anything but good
is slated for destruction. Why? Because the bark is valuable for the manu-
facture of tannin, a chemical used in the tanning of leather.
Small trees ten inches in diameter are stripped of their bark while
standing ( jayhawked) ; larger ones are felled before being peeled. The bark
.is packed out by animals to the road and from there trucked to the factory.
When the operation is over, the small trees stand stark and bare
while their larger brethren lie upon the ground with their trunks clean of
bark and their foliage dry and tinder-
like - perfect food for a forest fire.
(It is considered too expensive to pile
and "burn the "brush and the country is
too rugged and the roads too few to at-
tempt to "bring out the trunks.) Noth -
ing is used commercially except the
How much has "been spent
fighting fires caused by this condition
and what areas have been burned over,
no one knows.
And Does It Pay ?
Now let us see if this bark
business really pays. The bark peeled
near Hoopa goes to a plant at Areata,
California. The price paid at the
plant is $14 per cord. (A cord is
2,500 to 2,150 pounds of bark , depend-
ing on the moisture content.)
A "Jayhawked" Tree. (Note Point
To Which Bark Has Been Peeled)
It costs $4.00 to fell the
trees-, peel the bark and bring it to the road and $7.00 to move a cord of
bark from Hoopa to Areata, a total of $11.00 from tree to factory. The bark
sells for $14.00 a cord; that is a profit of $3.00 per cord, without reckon-
ing any other expenses.
It is difficult to say how large an oak must be to yield a cord of
bark, for many factors enter, such as the thickness of bark, the length of
the trunk and the number of branches. But it is safe to say that a tree of
some thirty inches in diameter - a veteran - would produce a. cord. In other
words, a fine big oak brings in a profit of $3.00 in cash. If put at inter-
est, at six per cent, this $3.00 would produce annually eighteen cents .
This same 30-inch tree, alive and growing, will produce annually a
thousand pounds of acorns .
The Indians frequently sell acorns to nearby ranchers, usually at
about a cent a pound. If they are not sold, the Indians say that they are
worth a cent a pound to them as feed. If the trees are cut , the annual rev -
enue from them will be eighteen cents ; if they are left as acorn producers .
they are good for $10.00 a year .
The Case Agains't Cutting Tan Oaks
To sum up the reasons against cutting tan oaks on Indian lands:
The acorns are food to man. They are food as well for hogs, cattle,
poultry, game and birds. The tan oak is a valuable protection tree, especial-
ly on the steep hillsides. The cash return from the bark is only a small
fraction of the cash value of the acorns produced.
The cutting of the trees would produce very little additional em-
ployment for the Indians and it would be a seasonal employment only. Those
Indians who wish to peel bark can easily secure jobs on private lands.
The bark business creates a tremendous fire hazard. There is a
tragic waste of wood. The United States Forest Service has consistently
turned a deaf ear to the pleas of the tan bark purchasers: evidently it is
believed that cutting of tan oaks for their bark is not in accordance with
intelligent forestry management.
The Indians, especially the older ones, are in general, opposed
The tan bark industry is looking for new resources. It is only re-
cently that an effort has been made to exploit the tan oaks of the Hoopa.
Let us save them J
Charter elections held between Kay 20 and June 30 show the following
For Agains t
May 22 Bad River ( Great Lakes Agency) 92 125
June 19 Kickanoo (Potawatomi Agency) 34 27
» Sac and Fox " 9
'• Iowa " 42
June 25 Seneca-Cayuga (Quapaw Agency) 161
The Seneca-Cayuga are the first group to be chartered under the
Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act.
The vote on the Jicarilla Aoache (New Mexico) constitution on July
3 was: yes, 242; no, 2.
DISTRICTS FOR HEADQUARTERS OE SUPERVISORY PERSONNEL ARE COORDINATED
A coordinated plan of districting Indian Service jurisdictions is
"being put into effect, with the object of achieving a more orderly and logi-
cal system of field supervision. Heretofore, supervisory field employees
have "been scattered in a large number of headquarters and each division had
its own system of supervisory districts.
The result has been that the superintendent of a jurisdiction,
wishing to consult with the technical supervisors designated as consultants
for his jurisdiction has had to visit or write to a number of headquarters,
in some cases as many. as six or eight. Conversely, from the point of view of
the supervisory personnel, employees dealing with a given jurisdiction have
not necessarily had headquarters together and have been unable to consult and
The proposed district scheme is not a perfect solution of the pres-
ent situation. The varying number of field employees under the direction of
the several divisions and the consequent necessary difference in the number
of headquarters which can be staffed, make it impossible to attain the ideal
district scheme at this time. Fnile not perfect, the proposed scheme is,
however, an improvement over the present situation and it will furnish a pat-
tern toward which to work.
It is not contennlated that employees will be summarily transferred,
with no regard to their preferences and present obligations. It is intended,
howevpr, that such transfers and such changes in designations of headquarters
as are necessary will be accomplished at the earliest uossible date.
Order No. 481, dated June 21, gives further details of the plan*
This order also reaffirms the authority of superintendents in dealing with
their own jurisdictions and restates the advisory and consultant relation-
ship of the supervisory employees representing the various divisions.
The map on the opposite page shows the plan of districting. There
are ten in all: eight fall in western continental United States; the Seminole i
Eastern Cherokee, New York and Mississippi Choctaw Agencies comprise District
1; and Alaska forms District 10. Each district has a principal headquarters,
in some cases two .
It should be reiterated that this plan in no way affects the rela-
tionship of jurisdictions to one another or the authority of superintendents.
It simply looks toward a more common-sense and economical plan of location
of supervisory personnel who represent the work of the various divisions.
OSCAR H. LIPPS
On July 31 Oscar H. Lipps, having reached the age of sixty-five,
will retire from the Indian Service. Although his active service in the In-
dian field will he over, it will be many years before the influence that he
has exerted in Indian affairs will become a memory.
Mr. Lipps entered the Indian Service February 1, 1898, as a teacher.
From this beginning he has progressed to some of the most responsible posi-
tions in the Service. His record stands with those of others who have devoted
their lives to the progress of the Indian race.
Were there space, it would be interesting to note the changes in
Indian Service procedure and conditions which have taken place during his
service. When Mr. Lipps entered the Service pioneer conditions prevailed on
many reservations; now, modern conveniences and methods of travel have vastly
changed the working conditions and lives of Indian Service employees.
During the closing months of his tenure of office, Mr. Lipps has de-
voted his entire time and splendid energies to the organization of Indians
under the Indian Reorganization Act. His services along this line alone have
fully justified the confidence imposed in him. In this work, as well as in
the many other activities with which Mr. Lipps has been closely identified,
he has shown that he has at heart, always, the welfare of Indians.
The entire Washington and Field staffs unite in wishing Mr. Lipps
the fullest enjoyment of his well-earned rest from active Government service.
If the sense of work well done brings any satisfaction, Mr. Lipps should have
a happy memory of his exceptional Indian Service record.
CRIME PEEVED ION AMONG INDIANS
By Wayne L. Morse, Dean of the University of Oregon School of Law
In its original relations with the Indians, the Federal Government
went on the theory that they were to he dealt with as self-governing nations
or tribes rather than as individuals. To the tribal authority was left the
task of maintaining order and administering justice. But as white settle-
ments and conditions of life began to make their impression upon Indian pat-
terns of living, this method became impossible to follow and Congress extended
the Federal law to include the Indian in some regards, with certain excep-
tions in recognition of tribal powers. It is, of course, true that Indians
while upon their reservations are not subject to the jurisdiction of the sev-
eral states, but only to that of the Federal Government. Moreover this Fed-
eral authority, insofar as crimes committed by one Indian against another
are concerned, is limited to eight major crimes - murder, manslaughter, rape,
assault with a dangerous weapon, assault with intent to kill, larceny, arson
and burglary. For other offenses committed on the reservation the Indian is
not accountable to any established law.
Matters of marriage and divorce are required to conform only to In-
dian custom and not to the laws of the state. In those parts of the country
where native tribal authority is crumbling or has to all intents and purposes
vanished, a gap in the administration of the law exists. Certain Courts of
Indian Offences, presided over by Indian judges, have been created to fill
this gap. By constitutions granted under the Indian Reorganization Act, tribes
are given authority to establish such laws and courts as are necessary for
their own government.
Tribal Custom And Opinion Still Powerful Factor For Civic Good
In. order to understand social conditions which surround the com-
mission and prevention of crime among Indian groups I think that an anecdote
which Mr. Ray Huff, Federal Parole Executive, is fond of telling will give
a good introduction. A short while ago an Indian was convicted of the mur-
der of one of his neighbors and sentenced for a term to a Federal institution.
Toward the conclusion of his sentence this Indian was placed on parole, but
before the parole board granted the parole, inquiries were made of the chief
and the tribal officials to determine their attitude toward his return to the
community. One of the investigators asked if perhaps it would not be more
effective to attempt to place the ex-prisoner in some other community so that
he would not have to bear the ill-will of the murdered man's family. After
some thought the chief expressed himself as being opposed to this plan and
suggested that he be allowed to handle the matter. When the paroled Indian
returned to his community after a few weeks, he was met by a committee of
citizens. Prominent in the committee were several relatives of the murdered
man, who came to express their good feeling toward him and offered to assist
him in his efforts to readjust.
This story is illustrative of some of the "best elements of Indian
community life. Custom is strong in the direction of protecting and assist-
ing all members of the neighborhood. Good parole can he achieved in such an
environment as this if officers are skillful in turning tribal authority in
the direction of assisting in law enforcement. Those who have worked among
Indians tell me that they have been highly successful in winning the coopera-
tion of tribal officials in returning offenders to successful community life
and that to a large extent the problem of parole supervision can be solved
by winning tribal assistance.
In the time when tribal authority was much stronger than it is now,
tribal court ceremonies were ordinary occurrences. When a man was brought
before the court and found guilty of the crime of which he was accused, he
was usually sentenced to death, the execution to take place at a later date.
The Indian was then dismissed and told to return on a certain day to meet his
death. Invariably he would return. Tribal custom was strong enough to
control his movements even when obedience to it meant the loss of his life.
Much of the strength of Indian tribal customs still remains. If
we are to deal effectively with the Indians and if we are to help them in
achieving a well-ordered existence we must make use of this very valuable
factor in their heritage. I have recently talked with a man, an Indian him-
self, who has for some time done work with Indians placed on probation and
parole. He tells me that the most effective, in fact, the only effective ■
technique upon which he has to rely is that of invoking tribal assistance
and group restraint to help in preserving the conditions of the parole or
probation which has been granted.
In this same connection the inherent honesty of the Indian can be
used to equal advantage. The same probation officer of whom I was speaking
tells me that he has had few cases where, having asked a man's word that he
would not violate his parole, this word was broken. Such a statement as
this is difficult for most of us to grasp just at first. We are so accustomed
to living in a society in which a man's word has become of little or no eon-
sequence that we are startled by such evidence of fundamental integrity. We
must recognize the fact that crime among the Indians can be controlled and
prevented only to the extent that we can control and prevent crime among the
great body of American citizens. The day for setting a good example is not
past and it is not reasonable to suppose that as the Indians take on our
mode of life, they will not also take on, in increasing amounts, the crimes
which seem to grow out of our present way of life. The great wonder is that
the extent of criminality among the Indians is as small as it is when we con-
sider the destructive influences which have been brought to bear upon them by
exposure to our civilized customs.
Culture Changes . Produce Difficulties
In some of the Indian groups native tribal authority and organiza-
tions have broken down and there has as yet been no satisfactory substitute
established. These Indians straddle two cultures but are a t>art of neither.
Recent research, particularly that which has been done by Clifford Shaw, in-
dicates an apparent correlation between crime and social disorganization.
Certain psychologists have pointed to crime as an inevitable consequence of
a changing social order in which the status of individuals is relatively less
fixed than before. Individuals in areas of cultural transition easily lose
their social stability and crime may result. Perhaps the most important
single factor which we must consider in thinking of the crime problem in re-
The Indian Service Is Not Proud Of Most Of Its Jails. This New
Court House And Jail At Pine Ridge, South Eake4a,
Is One Of The Best.
gard to Indian affairs is this •'culture conflict." Pa«t experience in deal-
ing with crime and delinquency in the larger metropolitan areas has shown
us the importance of successfully adjusting relationships between different
racial groups who are forced to live in close proximity.
Studies of crime among immigrants have for the most part discounted
the once popular notion that a large part of the American crime problem could
be traced to alien population. We find rather that a much higher degree of
criminality exists among the first generation of American-born citizens of
foreign parentage. The explanation for this fact lies in the "culture eofi-
flict", or the Tack of a real basis for understanding between the first gen-
eration and its offspring, a lack of common desires and traditions.
In the mixed-blood Indian groups more than in the full-blood it is
true that advancing educational opportunities for the younger generation
act to separate the interests and destroy mutual understanding between the
younger members of the tribe and the elders. The same situation exists in
regard to those young Indians who for one reason or another leave their na-
tive communities and for a time live the life of the white world. Perhaps
during the period of their absence a superior educational background is
achieved and just as is the case with many returning college students, the
young man looks at his old environment with new eyes. If he is not equipped
with good powers of adjustment this new situation is likely to cause disaster.
If the tribal authority of the group to which he belongs is still strong,
more than likely it will succeed in readjusting him to the old life and in
the process perhaps absorb some of the new life which he has brought back
with him. Parole officers tell us that the degree of parole risk is less
among Indian groups where the power of tribal custom is still most strong.
The great task with which we are confronted, if we wish to develop
adequate methods of crime prevention among the Indians - and by crime preven-
tion I do not mean merely the regression of criminal tendencies, but rather
the building of a well-rounded positive life — is that of building ladders
which will bridge the chasm between these two cultures — that of the white
man and that of the red. The great question which has confronted those in-
terested in the administration of Indian affairs for many years has been
how and of what material these ladders are to be and at what positions they
are to be placed after they have been built. Let us consider these questions.
Sta t istic s For Indians Do No t Indicate High Crime Rate
The other factor, in addition to their social background, which we
must have clearly in mind before we can devise effective methods of crime
prevention in regard to the Indians, is the extent and type of crimes most
A close analysis of available statistics indicates that the federal
offenses for which Indians are most frequently convicted are larceny, theft,
burglary, violation of federal liquor laws and criminal homicide. For the
period 1930 to 1935 a total of 107 Indians were convicted for these offenses.
As a general statement, it may be said that the Indians are peace-
ful, law-abiding citizens who do not often commit serious reported crimes.
This fact is particularly true of those who still live apart from white com-
munities -and maintain to a high degree the former tribal customs and tradi-
tions. Even among those Indians who have been rather closely intermixed with
the white population there is very little evidence of crimes of violence.
However, these favorable generalizations cannot apply to certain individual
Indians. For the most part serious offenders among them are Indians who have
drifted far afield of the old tribal ways and have to a large extent assumed
white manners of life. They have become discontented and restless as they
have been confronted with the attractions and temptations of more civilized
communities and have at the same time found themselves lacking the economic
and social requirements for such a life as they would like to lead. In many
cases the villages and communities of white people with which the Indian he-
comes associated have rather low standards of social conduct and form a poor
environment for persons who are attempting to adjust to new political, econ-
omic and social standards. They have passed out of trihal control and no
other method of social restraint has replaced the tribal inhibitions.
Here again we see evidence of the "culture conflict" of which I
spoke a few moments ago. These Indians, as they advance in their education,
recede from the old culture of which they were a part and advance into a
situation of which they know little. The Indian is naturally alarmed at the
slight degree to which the old culture which he knew can be made to apply in
the new environment.
Trained Indians Might Help In Transition Period
The tools which we have supplied to make this transition easier and
less difficult for him have been for the most part crudely shaped and rudely
used. It is quite possible that we have not yet made as much use as we might
of trained Indians in advancing the educational and social progress of their
friends and neighbors. Indian social workers, Indian teachers and missionaries
have already proved their great potential value in interpreting the cultural
values and social standards of the one race to the other. Experience in all
fields of social endeavor has taught us the great importance of utilizing to
the fullest extent that small proportion of progressive and aggressive individ-
uals who are willing to take the lead in changing conditions of which they
are a part.
There Is No Single Answer For Crime Prevention
What do we mean when we speak of crime prevention? The problem of
crime is as broad as the problem of life itself - It is a complex and many-
sided problem which must be attacked on all fronts and in all its aspects.
It is not sufficient that we limit ourselves to the detection, apprehension
and punishment of crime as has so long been our policy. In any progressive
society there must be two parallel programs in dealing with crime and de-
linquency - the immediate program of crime repression and the long-time pro-
gram of crime prevention. We must bear in mind that there is no one solution
to our problem. The abundance of sure cures and panaceas which are daily
presented for our attention in the Department of Justice is frequently dis-
couraging to those of us who are eagerly looking for signs of greatly increased
public intelligence as relates to the problem of crime control.
The answer to the solution of the crime problem does not lie alone
in the solution of the problems surrounding poverty, inadequate housing, dis-
ease, political corruption, gang activities, or any other one manifestation.
Research has taught us that crime is a result of a complex of forces in which
the attitudes and behavior characteristics of delinquency are generated. It
is not only the agencies which deal with the administration of criminal justice,
"but practically all social institutions - the community, the home, the school,
the recreation center, the church, the welfare agency - which must be called
upon in waging an adequate program for crime prevention. We can reasonably
expect success in reducing crime by exerting all our efforts to increase the
effectiveness of these agencies in light of what has been and can be learned
Community Buildings Like This One At Winnebago Agency, Nebraska,
Are A Factor In The Prevention Of Delinquency. This Building,
Built In 1936 From Indian Relief And Rehabilitation Funds,
Is In Constant Use.
from the histories of offenders. Careful observation of the situation both
before and after the preventive program is instituted and close control of as
many variables as possible should permit us to approach the truth about causal
factors in crime. If we are to achieve a permanent and satisfactory control
of crime, we must seek after the attitude and methods which have characterized
the fight of medical and public health authorities in bringing disease under
their control. The program which we must follow, if we are to achieve these
things, is not likely to prove dramatic. Results will not soon be evident,
but it is a job that must be done.
Opportunity For Normal , Well - Rounded Life _Is Best Crime Prevent ive
To a great extent, the problem of crime prevention is that of free-
ing mankind from those impediments which deter him from developing a well-
rounded personality. We can expect that crime will disappear only to the ex-
tent to which normal life - that is, the spontaneous expression of human na-
ture - becomes possible for everyone.
It is readily seen, then, that the first requirement of a sound
policy of crime prevention in regard to Indian affairs is that we meet in
a satisfactory manner the general economic and social needs of the Indians.
The prevention of crime is intimately connected with the whole problem of
The part which education may play in the prevention of crime is,
of course, an extremely important consideration.. Von Humboldt, the great
German educator, well said that whatever you would put into the life of a
nation you must first put into the curricula of its schools. It would seem
that a well-equipped and intelligently administered public school system
should be one of the most effective methods for consolidating divergent cul-
tures. However, there is one practical consideration which cannot be omitted
when we consider this theory. In order for Indian and white children to go
to school together and achieve a mutual liking and respect, it is necessary
to overcome first of all any difficulties which might be placed in the way
of the Indian child on account of a lack of proper clothes or the necessary
funds which he often lacks for making him socially acceptable in the school
community. These small and very practical considerations sometimes escape
our attention when we are thinking in general terms of social welfare, but
let us remember that eventual success in the long-range program depends to
a great extent on our ability to work out these very human if somewhat minor
adjustments. It is at this point that sympathetic Indian Service officers
who are highly sensitive to Indian problems can be of great aid in inter-
preting significant details to Federal administrative officers.
Improvement Of General Economic S tatus Essential
What part can the Federal Government play in bringing about a solu-
tion to the problems of crime control and prevention among the Indians? Per-
haps one of the most practical programs which it can institute would be that
of raising the general economic status and providing enlarged opportunities
for vocational training. The passage of the Wheeler-Howard Act in 1934 and
the Thomas-Eoger8 Act in 1936 promises some accomplishment in this regard. The
general provisions of these acts move in the direction of increasing voca-
tional opportunities and making possible the acquisition of more and better
lands for cultivation.
Certainly the true function of the Office of Indian Affairs is to
deal -justly with the approximately 350,000 Indians in this country and to do
everything in its power to assist them in becoming real citizens, economically
self-sustaining, with a sound education and a sound physical condition, capable
of controlling their own destinies. In order to achieve these broad objec-
tives, it is necessary, first of all, that we have constantly before us the
best obtainable knowledge of the Indian situation. The Office of Indian Af-
fairs has been very alert in obtaining such information. Research of the na-
ture of the Meriam report, scientific in its approach, should he continuous.
It is far too often the case that research studies of real value are greeted
with great enthusiasm when they first appear and shortly afterwards their
recommendations and suggestions are forgotten. Certainly the Meriam Heport
is worthy of all the attention that can he given it.
A non-political and progressive administrative setup must he main-
tained. Competent personnel with an inherent understanding of the prohlems
and personalities of Indians, trained in the technique of social work, with
a "broad experience in the execution of these general principles as applied
specifically to the Indian people, must he attracted to and held in the In-
dian Service. The strong efforts which the Indian Service has exerted in
this regard are to he commended. For any ultimate solution to the Indian
prohlem, it is necessary that we have a public opinion educated to the needs
and responsibilities involved in the handling of this situation. It is the
task of the Federal Government to arouse this public interest by dispensing
the true facts to the public at large. Among the most important things which
the Federal Government has to contribute are, of course, adequate funds for
the continuance and expansion of a progressive Indian policy.
From the facts which have been disclosed in the Meriam Report and
from other testimony it seems that the path along which the Indian is destined
to move is that which will bring about the promptest and most practicable
change from the Indian to the white way of living.
In general we may say that the great problem involved in the admin-
istration of justice among the Indians is that of achieving a proper balance
between the two forces now being exerted in the direction of social control,
tribal authority on the one hand and Federal or state legal authority on the
other. From a practical point of view it would seem that the best course for
us to follow is that of encouraging and bolstering up the ancient method of
social control so far as it will hold. Where tribal authority begins to
crumble or show signs of permanent weakness there is the place where we must
provide suitable and well-adapted outside legal restraints. This task of
maintaining an adequate balance and avoiding any overlapping of authority is
a delicate and difficult process. Success can be achieved only by the skill-
ful manipulations of administrators who clearly understand the significance
of their actions. Our job is not to tear down or to make inroads on the na-
tive culture of the Indian race; it is rather to reinforce their culture in
the places where it must inevitably break down with such additions as we can
A scientific approach by means of research, adequate national ap-
propriations, an understanding and well-supported Indian Service, a general
spirit of cooperation and an informed and interested public opinion are among
the forces which we must mass for any eventual solution to the Indian problem.
Note : This article was excerpted from an address given at the conference
of Indian Service Law Enforcement Officers held in Denver in March.
REPORT ON PENSION BILL TELLS STORY OP WOUNDED KNEE MASSACRE
There is pending in the pres-
ent Congress a bill (H. R. 2535) for the
benefit of victims and heirs of victims
of the Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890.
The bill is similar to a bill intro-
duced in the last Congress which failed
of passage; and its chances of passing
the present Congress do not appear to
In his report to the House
Committee on Indian Affairs on the
bill, the Acting Secretary of the In-
terior reviews the unhappy story of
the massacre. Several excerpts are
"The Wounded Knee incident
properly has been called a 'massacre.
The historical facts are here set
down as a basis for judgment by the
"The unrest and distress
among the Sioux bands had increased
in its intensity through a number of
years prior to 1890. The causes of
the Sioux misery need not here be re-
capitulated. There had been ruthless
violations of treaties and agreements
and numerous administrative abuses.
It scarcely was possible for the In-
dians themselves to know what spots
they were permitted to inhabit and
what they were forbidden to inhabit,
so sweeping and so casual had been
the violations and unilateral abroga-
tions of contract on the part of the Government. One of the responses of the
Sioux Indians, as of numerous other tribes similarly distressed, was the
flight into messianic religious revivals. The messianic revival among the
Sioux was known as the Ghost Dance Religion.
Little Chief, aged Sioux,
who, as a member of the United
States Police Force was present at
the Wounded Knee Massacre on
December 28, 1890.
"It is important to note that these messianic revivals had taken
place from time to time for many years among many Indian tribes and in no
instance had they thrown the Indians into aggressive warfare with the whites.
Neither acts of war, nor massacres nor depredations, had resulted from the
numerous messianic revivals. This record was known to the Government at the
"The four hundred or more Sioux Indians at the Wounded Knee site
consisted of family groups - men, women and children. The camp site was sur-
rounded by troops of the 7th Cavalry and artillery was trained upon the In-
dian encampment. The Indians were called upon to surrender their weapons,
and this they proceeded to do. Be it noted that their weapons were not nec-
essarily weapons of war. These Indians, at this time, lived by the chase, so
that in giving up their weapons they were exposing themselves to possible
starvation. Nevertheless, the surrender of weapons proceeded.
"At this point, the narrative of General Miles, contained in his
letter cited above may be quoted:
***** Colonel Forsyth ***** demanded the
surrender of the arms from the warriors. This was complied
with by the warriors going out from camp and placing the
arms on the ground where they were directed. Chief Big Foot,
an old man, sick at the time and unable to walk, was taken
out of a wagon and laid on the ground.
While this was being done a detachment of soldiers
was sent into the camp to search for any arms remaining there,
and it was reported that their rudeness frightened the women
and children. It is also reported that a remark was made by
some one of the soldiers that 'when we get the arms away from
them we can do as we please with them!, indicating that they
were to be destroyed. Some of the Indians could understand
English. This and other things alarmed the Indians and a
scuffle occurred between one warrior who had a rifle in his
hand and two soldiers. The rifle was discharged and a massa-
cre occurred; not only the warriors but the sick Chief Big
Foot and a large number of women and children who tried to
escape by running and scattering over the prairie were hunted
down and killed.
The official reports make the number killed 90 war-
riors and approximately 200 women and children.
The action of the Commanding Officer, in my judg-
ment at the time, and I so reported, was most reprehensible.
The disposition of his troops was such that in firing upon
the warriors they fired directly toward their own lines and
also into the camp of the women and children and I have re-
garded the whole affair as most unjustifiable and worthy of
the severest condemnation.
"The recital by General Miles gives an incomplete picture. The
files of the Indian Office contain a remarkable stenographic report of the
testimony of the Sioux delegation at Washington February 11, 1891. This
eye-witness testimony emphasizes the fact that the men and the women of the
tribe were in different places at the time when the killing got under way
and that they fled in different directions, so that the slaughter of the wom-
en and children necessarily was an action of massacre pure and simple. A
portion of the testimony follows:
AMERICAN HORSE. The men were separated as has
already been said from the women and they were surrounded by
the soldiers. Then came next the village of the Indians and
that was entirely surrounded by the soldiers also. When the
firing began, of course the people who were standing immediate-
ly around the young man who fired the first shot were killed
right together, and then they turned their guns, Hotchkiss
guns, etc., unon the women who were in the lodges standing
there under a flag of truce and of course as soon as they
were fired upon they fled, the men fleeing in one direction
and the women running in two different directions. So that
there were three general directions in which they took flight.
There was a woman with an infant in her arms who
was killed as she almost touched the flag of truce and the
women and children of course were strewn all along the cir-
cular village until they were dispatched. Right near the
flag of truce a mother was shot down with her infant; the
child not knowing that its mother was dead, was still nurs-
ing, and that was especially a very sad sight. The women
as they were fleeing with their babes on their backs were
killed together, shot right through, and the women who were
very heavy with child were also killed. All the Indians
fled' in these three directions and after most all of them had
been killed, a cry was made that all these who were not killed
or wounded should come forth and they would be safe. Little
boys who were not wounded came out of their places of refuge,
and as soon as they came in sight a number of soldiers sur-
rounded them and butchered them there.
Of course we all feel very sad about this affair.
I stood very loyal to the Government all through those
troublesome days and believing so much in the Government
and being so loyal to it, my disappointment was very strong,
and I have come to Washington with a very great blajne on my
heart. Of course it would have been all right if only the
men were killed; we would feel almost grateful for it. But
the fact of the killing of the women and more especially the
killing of the young boys and girls who are to go to make up
future strength of the Indian people, is the saddest part of
the whole affair and we feel it very sorely.
"The bill H. R. 2535 would authorize an appropriation in the name
of each victim killed in the massacre of the sum of one thousand dollars
($1,000), and in the name of each victim wounded in the massacre an equal
amount to be paid to the survivor or to he distributed among the heirs. The
date of the Wounded Knee Massacre was December 29, 1890, or forty-six years
ago. The massacre can be viewed both as an injury to the individuals who
were killed or wounded and as an injury to the entire Sioux Tribe. Redress,
therefore, could be attempted through the method of pensioning individuals
or through creating some new advantage for the tribe as a whole, as, for
example, a more generous relief to the indigent and infirm, or the establish-
ment of an orthopedic hospital for all the Sioux, etc., etc.
"In reporting on H. R. 11778, the 74th Congress, the Acting Direc-
tor of the Bureau of the Budget transmitted a lengthy communication from the
Acting Secretary of War recommending adverse action on this bill.
"Tne Acting Director of the Bureau of the Budget has advised 'that
the proposed legislation would not be in accord with the program of the
NO FEDERAL AID FOR THIS SIOUX GIRL!
By Rose S. Hallam - Pierre, South Dakota
Mary Swift Hawk
the leading state official
well on modest incomes.
In Fort Pierre, Stanley County, South
Dakota, there is the best examule of an "Indian
At Work" which it has been my privilege to see
during a residence of many years among the Indians.
This little town of about seven hundred
inhabitants, mainly white, lies in the heart of
the drought and grasshopper section, the result
being «iat a very large percentage of its popula-
tion has had to resort to some form of relief.
Yet, in the midst of all this unemployment and
distress, lives Mary Swift Hawk, a Lower Brule
Sioux who came to this town about six years ago
and in tha.t time has established for herself an
enviable reputation as a dressmaker and designer.
Her customers come largely from the more prosper-
ous little city of Pierre, immediately across the
Missouri River, via bridge, and in which is located
the Sta,te Capitol. She has designed and made
gowns for the Governor's daughter, the wives of
s and many young girls who take pride in dressing
FORT HALL LEADERS SPEAK AT " INDIAN DAY " AT POCATELLO . IDAHO
"Indian Day", held May 23 at the Congregational Church in Pocatello,
Idaho, was attended this year toy more than two hundred Fort Hall Indians. The
purpose of these annual gatherings has toeen to promote understanding and friend-
ship between the citizens of Pocatello and the Indians of Fort Hall.
Charlie Bell, Indian judge, and John Ballard, an Indian leader, spoke
at the meeting this year.
Charlie Bell's greeting follows:
"I will say a few words:
"God has created the human people on this earth, therefore, we are
living on this earth. Also, people have toeen created on the other side of
the ocean and the foreigners and different nationalities on the other side
of the ocean. They all speak the different language over there and also the
people in America have different languages. And the people have come from
across the ocean into this country - just like wild horses, different creeds
come together. We all have one tolood. I am glad invite to make this little
speech here to people. I am glad too that the white people have toegun to know
the Indians so they invite the Indians to come to their church nowadays. It
is a good thing that we should all toe friendly and mingle together. Some of
our people have toelong to different church; even if they go to their own church-
es they should come here to white man's church. This is a great lesson to us
why we meet to go in the church like this. This church is teaching us not
to do the wrong thing as get many people in trouble - steal things, do some-
thing toad; that is what the church is doing, teaching us the right way to live.
We should distinguish the toad and the good so we live the right lives. That
is all I have to say."
John Ballard spoke as follows:
"I am glad my friends invite me to say a few words, so I will say
a few words. We Indians are here today with you, women, men and children.
Today I think that my people are not afraid of anything. Tears ago when the
white people meet with Indians in toig crowd they always wanted something of
the Indians. You have invite us Indians here to your church and we are happy
to toe here with you; we are feeling just atoout like you do; we are happy.
"For the whites there is a Bitole, they started, they learned from
it ... The Indians were created on the other side of the ocean and God has
give them power to toelieve in spirits, also give them right to think atoout
the way that they should live. God has give us how to pray to Him ... says
we all have different languages, different tritoes, different nationalities,
but God has give us that. They are very few people live over there who know
how to pray the Indian way . . . hut the young people are taking up another
kind, the white way. The way the Indians pray, that is coming to be done away
with, hut all the young people are becoming education: they are going to take
up the white way of praying and believing in God.-
"You, my white friends, notice my people here with you today: every
time you stand up they get up with you; they have a book in their hands; they
sing with you. I have noticed that they took up a collection; I notice my
people give what they could afford to give. The Indians believe in God, there-
fore, they give what they could give. My people are on reservations, they
hold meetings just like you do - they pray to God.
"I am glad that you white people have invited my people to your
church; I think it is a good thing for our people to come here and go to
church with you. I don't see nothing wrong with it. Over six years ago the
white people never used to invite Indian to their church like this. I am
glad to know that my white friends thinks something of the Indians and in-
vite Indians to come to their church. I am glad that they are helping us,
leading us in the right way. I believe that you white people know the here-
after of our young Indians: they are going to be educated. Some of them
get marry with the white.
"I am not an educated man, so therefore, these few words I have
said to you are all I can think of." (Interpreted by Mr. Cosgrove.)
FOUR GENERATIONS AT STANDING ROCK , NORTH DAKOTA
Pour Generations Of One Family Of Standing Rock Sioux,
All Of Whom Attended The Porcupine Community Extension
Meeting Held This Spring.
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A UNIT DONE BT STUDENTS IN A VOCATIONAL ENGLISH
CLASS AT SANTA FE INDIAN SCHOOL, NEW MEXICO
Photograph by T. Harmon Parkhurst
EARLY INDIANS OF MONTANA
(Used With Permission Of Federal Writers' Project,
Works Progress Administration)
Prior to white occupation, the trihes in Montana east of the Rockies
were the Assiniboines in the northeast; the Sioux, overlapping into Montana
from the Dakotas; the Minnetarees, also called Gros Ventres of the River; the
Snakes (Shoshone), widely scattered, living both east and west of the moun-
tains; the Cheyennes in southeastern Montana; and the Arapahos (White Clay-
men), si so called Gros Ventres of the Prairie.
It should be noted that not all Gros Ventres (big bellies) were of
one stock, the name having been apnlied by early Canadian trappers both to
the Arapahos who were called Gros Ventres of the Prairie and to the Minne-
tarees who were called Gros Ventres of the River. The two tribes were of
different stock, spoke a different language and were bitter enemies. A
third tribe called Gros Ventres of the Mountains, or Atsina by their Black-
feet allies, spoke the same dialect as the Arapahos and were closely akin.
Of the eastern tribes, the Blackfeet and Crows were predominant.
The Blackfeet, a loose confederacy of three tribes, consisted of the Pecunis
(Piegans), the Bloods, and the Blackfeet proper. They were of one blood, of
Algonquian stock. The Blackfeet cammed and hunted over a vast area from near
the North Saskatchewan River in Canada to the headwaters of the Missouri
River. They were cleanly in personal habits, famous horsemen, warlike and
ruthless in battle. In their campaigns they crossed the Rocky Mountains and
ranged far to the west and south. They are known to have visited the Great
Salt Lake in Utah.
The Crows (Absarokee) were Hidatsa and formerly lived along the
lower reaches of the Missouri. According to legend, because of the quarrel
between two- women over a buffalo paunch, the Hidatsa s-olit, one faction be-
ing the Minnetarees and the other the Crows who migrated westward to the
"land of the lone mountains" and finally settled along the Yellowstone, Big
Horn, Powder and Wind Rivers where they became the most powerful of the
southern Montana, tribes. The Crows were always friendly to the whites.
The Cheyennes who visited LaSalle's Fort near the present site of
Peoria, Illinois, in 1680, and who probably preceded the Sioux in occupying
the upner Mississippi region, were of the Algonquian family. However, their
Algonouian roots are apparent today only linguistically. According to their
traditions, the Cheyennes were the first Indians to use horses in eastern
Montana. A tribe called Horse Indians by Verendry in his journal of his ex-
pedition of 1742-43 may have been Cheyennes.
Hie Snakes belonged to the great Shoshonean family, one of the
irost widely known of North American Indians. The territory over which the
Snakes roamed and hunted stretched from the Big Horn Mountains to the Coastal
Range. Sacajawea who accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition was a Sho-
shone woman, stolen in her youth hy the Minnetarees.
The Arapahos, who were of Algonquian stock, ranged over a wide ter-
ritory, covering the headwaters of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers. They
were variously allied with both Blackfeet and Cheyennes.
Earliest inhabitants west of the main range in Montana were a
Salish people of whom little is known. Skeletal remains show them to have
been short and stocky like modern Coast tribes, but unlike the Kootenais and
Flatheads who inhabit western Montana today. The position of the skeletons
at the time of discovery indicates flexed burials in pits. Charcoal remains
suggest cremation which is not historically a Flathead custom. Trinkets and
adornments, beads made from abalone shell, and salt water molluscs indicate
coastal origin. Legends about these prehistoric Indians tell of a stupid,
cruel, courageous, but foolhardy people who lived in pit dwellings which were
little more than holes in the ground.
The various Flathead Tribes are undoubtedly of Salish origin as
indicated by their language and a few religious and ceremonial customs. In
other respects - in stature and manner of living, they more resemble Plains
Indians than they resemble Coast Indians. Their name is a misnomer, as thes'e
interior Salish never flattened the heads of infants. This was a practice
only of Coast tribes. In religious ceremonies the use of the double lean-to
instead of the conventional teepee seems a holdover from the communal house
of the Coast tribes. The ceremonial dances are different from the Sun Dance
of the Plains; they had no secret societies within the tribes; and they were
fish eaters. Otherwise, they are much more like Plains Indians than Coast
Indians. Anthropologists account for this fact through their yearly migra-
tions to the Plains after they came into possession of horses some time in
the eighteenth century.
The Flatheads dwelt along the shores of Flathead Lake in the Bitter-
root Valley and on the west slopes of the Rocky Mountains, frequently cross-
ing the Divide to hunt along the Judith and Musselshell Rivers. They
recognized kinship and generally enjoyed fraternal relations with the Pend
d'Oreilles, the Kalispells, the Coeur d'Alenes, the Colvilles and the Spokanes
who were also of Salish stock farther west. They also intermarried with the
Nez Perce, a Shahaptian Tribe living along the Clearwater River in what is
The Kootenais of northwestern Montana and southern British Columbia
are usually accounted a distinct stock (Kitunahan), but their speech has
some similarities to Algonquian which may indicate an original relationship.
They are believed to have lived formerly on the east side of the Rockies
whence they were driven west by their traditional enemies, the Blackfeet.
The Kootenais were more warlike than their western neighbors and were the
greatest hunters of whitetail deer and the finest tanners of buckskin of
all the Indians. They were noted for their birch hark canoes, with under-
shot ends, resembling those used on the Amur River in Siberia. They were
sun worshipoers, which is a Plains characteristic. They hunted and traded
peaceably with the Salish but they were bitter enemies of the Blackfeet
with whom, like the Flatheads, they were constantly at war.
The Bannocks of Shoshonean stock ranged over a portion of south-
western Montana and inha.bited roughly the same territory as the Nez Perces,
the main tribe of the Shahaptian family.
After they possessed horses, the Plateau Indians made regular mi-
grations across the mountains to hunt buffalo and engaged in many a pitched
battle with both Blackfeet and Crows. With the Crows at times they had
periods of truce but with the Blackfeet, never.
These were the tribes, east and west of the Divide, that white men
found in what is now Montana.
INDIAN CLAIMS COMMISSION BILL DEFEATED
The Indian Claims Commission Bill, S. 1902, which had passed the
Senate during the la.st session of this Congress, met defeat in the House on
June 23 by a vote of 176 to 73.
This bill, which had been proposed during the previous administration
and advoca.ted as far back as 1913, was aimed at a solution of the Indian
claims tangle. It would have set up a commission of three men, whose duty
it would have been to receive or uncover evidence bearing on the merit or
lack of merit of Indian claims, to assemble complete information on claim
cases and to report their findings to Congress, with recommendations for dis-
position of cases. Recommendations might have ranged from direct settlement
by Congress, to the enactment of a jurisdictional bill taking the case in
question into the Court of Claims, to dismissal of cases without merit. The
Commission would have been in no sense a court but its findings of fact would
have been admissible as evidence in the Court of Claims, thereby making pos-
sible the avoidance of duplication of effort in establishing evidence.
Members of the House who spoke against the bill in the debate on
the floor gave as reasons for their opposition their feeling that the hill
would set up a needless additional government agency and their fear of the
opening up of millions of dollars in claims against the government .
A TRADER OK THE PORT PECK RESERVATION _IN MONTANA SPEAKS
By G. A. Lundeen, President and Manager of the Fort Peck Mercantile Company
Since the early spring of 1913 I have been trading with the Indians
here at Poplar. During all that period up to 1928 all of the Indians had
money to their credit and spent it freely in buying necessities of life, such
as groceries, meats and clothing and also for building and repairing of homes.
In these prosperous years, many of them had automobiles and obtained a great
deal of enjoyment from the use of this new way of traveling.
In these later years the tribal funds were almost exhausted, the
crops were poor and the white renters of their land were unable to meet the
lease payments. This meant hard times for them as well as their white neigh-
During the good years many of the Indian people farmed and made
good at it. To many of these that had crops planted I extended credit during
the summer months and they were among the first to come in and pay their bills
when their crops were harvested. In all my dealings with the Indians, I have
found that most of them appreciated any help extended to them when they were
in straits and that they would come in and pay me as soon as they obtained
money from leases, crops or other sources. Of course, there are always a few
who forget this help and try to avoid paying up; the percentage of such peo-
ple, however, is no greater among Indians than among white people.
It has been an interesting game to trade with them and I have en-
joyed it during these years, even during this discouraging period when there
were almost no crops and their revenues were very small.
I am hoping that this territory will again be blessed with plenty
of moisture so that both the Indians and the whites can again enjoy farm-
ing and stock raising as in the past.
CROW PAIR TO BE HELD AUGUST 30 TO SEPTEMBER 4
The Crow Pair will be held August 30 to September 4. This annual
event, which includes live stock shows, races, dances and rodeo events, will
this year include a historical pageant to be presented on September 1.
FIGHTING ONE OF AGRICULTURE'S GREAT PLAGUES AT
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One method of fighting Mormon
crickets is shown here. A swarm of
crickets is found advancing across
a field, a.s indicated in the dia-
gram on the left. A temporary gal-
vanized iron fence is laid around
the area. (Last year a fence over
a mile long was used.) The crickets
follow the fence and converge toward
the trap. Oil is sprinkled in the
trap, and the crickets are then re-
moved and "burned.
Crickets Following The Fence
WESTERN SHOSHONE AGENCY . NEVADA - MORMOI CRIGKETS
The Fences Converge Near The Trap
Slipping into the trap. A pit
4' x 4' x 4 1 was filled in a
NAVAJO TRIBAL COUNCIL SENDS DELEGATES
TO TESTIFY IN SENATE SUBCOMMITTEE HEARINGS
Mention was made in the July 1 issue of "Indians At Work" of the
hearings held by a subcommittee of the Committee on Indian Affairs to hear
the testimony of a group of Navajo Indians headed by Jacob Morgan. Subse-
quently, on July 3, the Committee heard Commissioner Collier, Mr. Fryer and
a group of Navajos which the tribal council sent in at its own expense. The
statements of these witnesses have been mimeographed and a limited number of
copies are available at the Office of Indian Affairs in Washington.
Council spokesmen criticized the Morgan group for making mislead-
ing statements in their discussions on the reservation and for their lack of
a constructive program.
They spoke against allotment, the possibility of which had been
raised by the Morgan group's attorney and against the splitting of the tribe.
They asked assurance of the holding of tribal assets, including the oil in
the Eastern Navajo area, for the tribe as a whole.
In speaking of the stock reduction program, Dogol-Chee-Bikis, one
of the delegates said that reductions of small owners had been voluntary,
and made, in many cases, unwisely, because of the desire for immediate cash.
"To begin with," he said, "when the reduction program first came in, it was
talked about for a long time and the results were found, one after another,
that the man with 100 head of sheep should not reduce, I think that we, as
the Navajo Tribe, have abused that, ourselves. We are more responsibile for
the reduction, the way it has been carried on, than those people who are in
authority. For that reason, I do not think the blame should entirely fall
upon those who are in authority, but that we should be included in that." ,.,
"Nobody on the reservation favors the reduction, because they know
that it is taking away from their livelihood and their money; but, nevertheless,
it is just like a baby that is sick: it has to have castor oil in order that
it might get well. We like our sheep, but nevertheless we have to take the
medicine of reduction, because, considering the range, we know that the sheep
have to be fed off the range, and we know that the income comes from the range.
The foundation of the whole thing - of the whole situation is the range."
In conclusion, the delegates urged the passage of the New Mexico
Navajo Boundary Bill , mention of which had been omitted by the Morgan delega-
tion in reviewing reservation troubles and needs. "I plead with Senator
Chavez," said one of the delegates "for I think that he knows for a fact that
the Navajos want land and that he should give us that land that lies on the
eastern side of the reservation. We want that extension. Our people need it,
and our people are entitled to it."
The other members of the group were Henry Talliman, chairman of the
tribal council, Frank Mitchell and Howard Gorman.
nilllAN OFFICE POLICY SUMMARIZED
The letter below, written by Commissioner Collier in reply to an
inquiry from the Haskin Information Bureau, gives a brief statement of pres-
ent-day Indian administrative policy.
Responding to your query, the present Indian policy is to
help Indians to get on their own feet individually and collectively,
and materially and morally. On the negative side, the policy is to
stop dictating to Indians how they shall live, what their religious
affiliations should he and so forth.
We are trying to supply landless Indians with land for sub-
sistence farming and grazing. We are administering a credit system
to enable Indians to finance their own enterprises. We are encourag-
ing self-government, under the terms of the Indian Reorganization Act
of June 18, 1934.
We are trying to provide schools equal to the best white
schools and under the Reorganization Act we are supplying to Indians
an opportunity for advanced education in colleges and professional
We are working with the Indians to conserve their timber,
water and soil resources, depleted in the past through reckless over-
Indian administration today has no dogma or set pattern
for even one tribe of Indians and certainly not for 250 tribes, each
with a past, a present and a future peculiar to itself. Half of the
Indians, are living like white people and will go on out into the
white world. The others, we hope will strengthen their group iden-
tities, while at the same time participating more fully in the gen-
eral life of the country.
(Signed) John Collier
PUBLIC HEALTH WORK AMONG CHILDREN AT THE CHEYENNE RIVER AGENCY . SOUTH DAKOTA
By Phoebe Sheppaxd, Field Nurse
Some of the most interesting phases of public health work at the
Cheyenne River Agency are with the children.
First, there were thorough physical examinations of all the pupils
at the beginning of the school semester; then there were vaccinations.
ffhen contagious illnesses occur, there is always the possibility of
epidemic. During the month of November there were four cases of scarlet fever
in the dormitories of the Cheyenne River Boarding School. After these chil-
dren had been diagnosed as having scarlet fever, they were taken to the hospi-
tal at Pierre, since it was not feasible to care for them at the Agency hospi-
tal which was then under reconstruction. The physician requested that the
nurse supervise and instruct the children in throat gargling twice daily and
the brushing of teeth with salt solution three times daily. The use of car-
bolic soap in hand washing was also stressed. All dishes used in the dining-
room were sterilized.
No further cases of scarlet fever occurred. The splendid coopera-
tion of the scnool faculty in carrying out the orders of the physician ana
in helping the field nurse was no small factor in the control of this out-
break and deserves special commendation. These measures and the strict quar-
antine observance of personnel and children at this school prevented what may
have been an epidemic
Health in the day schools is watched too. Below is a copy of a
health report of eight children from one of the day schools.
1st 2nd 1st 2nd
» • • •
65 65|.. .108... 121
48. . ..48 45. . . 58
58. ...58^. . . 71... 79
A. . . .61. . .. A. .. 90
54 54.... 54... 59
53.... 53.... 73... 83
62 62§... 87... 93
• • •
• • •
• • •
. Dirty Teeth
Scabies - Treated
Dermatitis - Treated
All of these children live in homes where there is a patient with
active pulmonary tuberculosis. We were consequently glad to note the increase
in weight on the part of all eight. The lunch served at noon at the school
has undoubtedly contributed toward the general improvement in health of the
This group at Green Grass Day School
hold up their health chart and show
on their fingers how many pounds
each has gained during the time
A. young Sioux mother - bashful, but proud
of her baby. She had prenatal care and,
after her baby was born, had infant
hygiene instruction also.
Tired Of The Clinic.
THE HEIRSHIP LAMP PROBLEM - AN ANSWER SUGGESTED
Commissioner Collier, in his editorial in the June 1 issue of
"Indians At Work", dealt with the complications of the heirship land system
and its costliness. He asked for suggestions from readers. One of the re-
plies is given "below:
Indian Organization Suggested As A Tool To Unravel The Land Tangle
If Indians organized under charters could realize the great cost
to themselves and the Government in maintaining current chain of title to
the inherited land estates, they would take immediate steps, individually or
collectively, to "bring about a solution of this problem.
Nearly all Indians would like to have their organization a going
concern so that it would "become, in fact, a moving, living power for the
welfare of all members. With intelligent management by business-like of-
ficers, there is nothing to stop any Indian organization from becoming such
In any organized institution, in order to entitle one to the bene-
fits thereof and a vote in its policies, some definite responsibility must
be assumed by that member. How many Indians have a financial interest in
their chartered corporations? Aside from their moral support, few Indians
have invested any private capital in their corporations.
Every Indian land owner may assist his corporation and save his
family future probate expenses by conveying his land interests to the United
States in trust for his tribe or corporation, subject to the condition that
the Indian grantor and members of his family shall have the income and oc-
cupancy of the land so long as they shall live. A testator may also devise
his land interests in the same way, reserving a life interest in his family.
The effect of such conveyances would divest the Indian owner of his title,
if any, subject to the life interests of himself and members of his family;
probate expenses would be cut to a minimum; the corporation would have great-
er borrowing assets; and the living members of the family would have lost
little by such a conveyance. It is very doubtful in the writer's mind if
there is a necessity to determine the heirs of Indians holding lands under
It would be possible for Indian corporations, if they wished, to
enact ordinances forbidding to its members the right to office, or to loans,
where they have no financial interest in their organization. It is elementary
that a person who has a financial interest in his organization will use his
influence in making it a successful enterprise.
A white man's title to land is an estate of inheritance. It is
the largest r>ossible estate a man can have, "being an absolute estate. It is
where land is given to a man and to his heirs absolutely, without any end or
limitation put to the estate. But it may be lost by non-payment of taxes,
conveyance by deed or mortgage, condemnation and so forth. An Indian's title
to restricted lands may also be an estate of inheritance but with certain re-
strictions and limitations. He cannot sell or mortgage his land without con-
sent of the Government.
Therefore his title is not absolute. His restricted land interests
cannot be lost by non-payment of taxes until Congress acts. As the writer
sees it, the Indian title is just a little better than a life estate, in that
it can be inherited by future descendants. But after all, we cannot convey
or devise lands to persons not in being. So in this, the Indian's interest
should be secondary to that of his interest in his corporation.
No race of people ever achieved economic freedom and self-determina-
tion without responsibility, character and a fixed course in the proper appli-
cation of their assets. After everything is said and done, all wealth comes
from the land. Absolute jurisdiction over all the lands of the Indian communi-
ty by its organization would endow it with great possibilities for the benefit
of all. Bv^ C. R. Beaulieu , Minnesota Chippewa , Land and Probate Clerk , Tulalip
Agency, Washington .
VISITORS IN THE WASHINGTON OFFICE
Recent visitors in the Washington Office have included Superintend-
ent Charles H. Berry of Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency in Oklahoma; Superintend-
ent Walter B. McCown of Kiowa Agency in Oklahoma; Superintendent John G.
Hunter of Fort Peck Agency in Montana; and Superintendent Mark L. Burns of
Consolidated Chippewa Agency in Minnesota.
The design on the cover of this issue of "Indians At Work" was
drawn by Bob Hofsinde (Grey-Wolf). It is a modern Hopi pottery design.
MEXICA N NOVEL GIVES VIVID INTERPRETATION OF INDIAN LIFE
By D'Arcy McNickle, Administrative Assistant, Office of Indian Affairs
EL INDIO — By Gregorio Lopez y Fuentes . Translated by Anita Brenner.
Illustrations by Diego Rivera. 256 pp. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merril Co.
There are several reasons why anyone interested in Indians and par-
ticularly anyone interested or involved in Indian administration, will want
to read El Indio , the book which was awarded the National Prize of Literature
by the Camara de Diputados. Of first consideration, the book is readable. It
is writing which, for directness, for simplicity and for verbal vitalism, is
easily distinguished. Presented as -it is with Diego Rivera's illustrations
imbedded in the text, one is struck by the remarkable kinship between writer
and artist. Reflecting upon that kinship, one can think of nothing more orig-
inal to say than that its ethos is Mexican, as we are coming to know it, thanks
largely to Rivera.
But what makes the book especially interesting to anyone having what
we might c?rll a professional relationship with Indians, is the book's quality
of epitomizing, not Indian history alone, but that ethos, that Indian charac-
ter conditioned by its journey in the world. Consider:
"The ducks are hatched in the bulrushes and they have scarcely bro-
ken through their shells when they throw themselves into the water without
having been taught by father or mother. The butterflies burst through their
wrappings and wing freely into the sky. The snake comes into being and glides
through the weeds with death in its mouth ... We were like that, too (but)
what has happened to us is just that under the domination of another race, we
have begun to lose faith in our instincts." Words of the tribal seer.
It. would seem that man's first purpose and greatest need is to work
through nature, as the worm works outward from the womb of the apple, into
whatever you fancy to call it — the light, fulfillment, consuming grace.
Primitive children impress themselves upon everything they touch, carnalizing
the speechless stone and inventing an interlocking spiritualism by which they
clasp to themselves powers that are beyond their own strength and appease the
forces that would destroy them. When a more highly sophisticated people comes
into contact with this primitivism, the outcome is obvious. Instincts suffer,
indeed. It is decay, degradation, looming death. A dominant culture must
make this decision: either be consistently and persistently ruthless, until
it has stamped out the weaker pa.ttern; or apply good sense and a scientific
mind to working out a condition in which both can survive.
Too often, one suspects, Indian administrators go cheerily to bed
after a day in which they have maneuvered, or outwitted, a recalcitrant full-
blood into doing something for his own good which means a further rending of
the fabric of instinct. Then they wonder why the full-blood turns suddenly
stubborn and uncooperative. An Indian administrator, if he takes the second
choice, should begin each day by bowing to the east and reminding himself to
practice humility, good sense and science.
Perhaps these reflections do not strictly belong in a book review,
but they come inescapably to mind as one reads El Indio . All the tragedy and
confusion, individual and tribal, which the book portrays, results from the
never-stumbling pride and conviction with which the ruling race encounters
these mountain primitives. The boy who shatters his legs in escaping from
three gold-lusting men and drags his agony into the lives of two families;
the authorities who come to dynamite a mess of fish and legalize their hood-
lumisra by the simple trick of reversing the Aviso which announced the law
to the Indians; the building of a road which leads nowhere and the building
of a church which has equal purposelessness, both with village labor - these
are some of the incidents which characterize the attitude of the self-appointed
better people. There is heavy-handedness in the author's art, it is true, but
veracity is not strained. Of the future, one gathers, the author is not en-
tirely convinced. He is biding his time. The Indians are on the march. A
leader has risen among them and there are comings and goings, ambushings of
officials, repeal of the head tax. But leadership is still naive. Much has
yet to be learned, and suffered.
Some readers will probably be left cold, at least at the beginning
of the book, by what might be called the author's trick of anonymity. No
characters are named. Time and place are not named. The tribe is not named.
As any instructor in the methods of fiction can tell you, this is an artistic
sin. But like all conventions, it can be violated with impunity when the
violation is purposeful. Anyone reading through the book is certain to have
a very vivid sense of Mexico, of its "corrugated greew of the Sierra", its
sweltering jungles, its incredible economic contrasts, its laboring under the
handicap of an appalling superstition which in the past has been abetted by
an ignorant priesthood and a corrupt petty officialdom. And this is further
reason, if further reason is needed, why El Indio should be read by anyone
interested in Indians, whose habitat, we are reminded, extends south of the
Rio Grande and north of the Dominion border.
************ * * * * *
NEW NAME FOB I.E.C.W.
Beginning July 1, Indian Emergency Conservation Work has been
changed to Civilian Conservation Corps - Indian Division. This is a change
of title only, and has no bearing on the Division's function.
FROM I.E.3.W. REPORTS (H EREAFTER TO BE DESIGNATED AS GCC - ID )
Tree Planting At Sac & Fox
( Iowa ) Tree planting was continued
this week. Nearly all the acreage in
the field is planted. About 12,000
trees which are left over are being
lined out to he used for planting
blank spaces later on. The weather
has been cool and wet - just right
for tree planting. Eug ene T. Hood ,
Reorgan i zation Meeting At Tomah
Indian School ( Wisco nsin) A meeting
concerning the Reorganization Act
was attended by the entire group of
men on Thursday, May 27th. This
meeting was well attended by the
tribe as a whole and a great deal
of interest was shown. Mr. Perue
Farver from Ashland, Wisconsin, was
the main speaker. The meeting start-
ed at 2 p.m. and ended about 4 p.m.
The ECW truck was used to .transport
the men to the meeting. The Stock-
bridge Business Committee is meet-
ing with Mr. Farver today to com-
plete arrangements and get a clear-
er picture so that they can explain
the details of reorganisation to
those who were unable to attend the
meeting. Ke nneth G. Abert , Trail
L ocato r.
Activ ities At Shawnee (Okla-
homa) Weather conditions have been
excellent for the last two weeks
and the boys are enjoying their
work, regardless of how much the
sun bears down; the work goes on;
time out at noon for lunch and soft
ball and then more work.
We are having many discussions
on such topics as snake bites, swim-
ming and where and how to apply many
kinds of bandages. Every snake that
is killed on the project is inspected
and by doing this the boys are get-
ting first-class information.
We hope to make greater progress
in building baffles. We are also
trying to build a winning ball club
and to be able to recognize poison-
ous snakes if bitten; how to treat a
snake bite. Herbert Frank l in , Asst .
Rodent Co ntrol Wor k At Consoli -
dated Ute ( Colorado ) Twenty man-
days were spent on rodent control
work this week. The crew has fin-
ished control work along the irriga-
tion structures under the Pine River
Project in connection with Southern
Ute Indian allotments and will spend
the rest of their time on the worst
areas of infestation on Indian al-
lotments on this reservation. Three
hundred and ten pounds of poisoned
grain were- used and about 608 acres
of land were covered. Progress has
been very good.' Graves S. G-unn .
Spring Development At Crow ( Mon -
tana ) We finished clearing the old
spring development material out of
the way. The new installation is
all in and all that remains to be
finished is the fence. The lessee
is highly pleased with the work we
have done. This spring represents
the only water available to him in
his 3,000 acre lease.
We expect to move from this
spring Monday. Stephen Sun Goes Slow .
Reservoir Maintainence At Choc -
jtaw and Chicka saw Sanatoriu m (Okla-
homa) We have made very good prog-
ress on the Stock Water Reservoir
This dam is being reinforced
with clay, soil and rocks. The walls
of this dam were very weak, in fact,
near collapse and it was necessary
that this work be done to preserve
From three to four teams have
been used daily in this work, pulling
slip loads of clay, soil and rocks
upon the walls of the dam. The clay,
soil and rocks are used for the pur-
pose of strengthening and reinforc-
ing the structure of the dam.
Weather conditions have been
ideal this spring and the forests
and mountains on and near the reserve
are most beautiful. Dr . William E.
Van Cleave , Sup erintendent .
Erosion Control Work At Pima
( Arizona ) Erosion control work
was gotten under way during the
week in the vicinity of Gila Cross-
ing and fair progress was made with
one tractor and a small team crew.
•The Indians of that vicinity are
glad to get busy.
All fence repairs in Gila Riv-
er and in Salt River Reservations
are going along very well. One small
crew is working at Salt River and
another at Gila River.
The Papagos of Ak Chin were
glad to be employed repairing the
small flood control dike as the
washout last year makes them appre-
hensive of the summer storms. Clyde
H. Packer , Project Manager .
Truck Trail Maintenance At Ho op a
Valley ( California ) We have been en-
joying lovely weather during the past
week and work has begun on the truck
trail and horse trail clearing slides,
fallen trees and grading in prepara-
tion for summer use during the fire
season. A crew of 14 men worked on
the Big Hill and Hostler Ridge Trails
and completed some seven miles. The
bulldozer was used to clear slides
and the grader will be used to grade
that portion next week. Two men
worked on the Bull Creek Horse Trail
which covered a large area of the
reservation bordering the Klamath
Work is progressing nicely on
the subsistence garden project at
Johnson Village. A quarter-mile of
ditch line was cleared during the
week. The crew worked in large tim-
ber and made good progress.
Three of the enrollees left on
Thursday morning to attend the Dis-
trict Forest Guard Training School
at Toppenish Agency in Washington.
The courses will begin on Monday,
and will continue for one week. The
men who made the trip were very en-
thusiastic at tyie opportunity to de-
velop themselves along the lines for
which the school is being conducted
and we expect good results from them.
Patrick J_. Rogers , Assistant Clerk .
Range Revegetation At Alabama
and Coushatta ( Texas ) Under the
range revegetation project, about
thirty acres were planted with les-
pedeza seed bought out of the last
allotment. Several good showers of
rain have fallen that will insure a
The enrollees have been applying
"High Life" to the ant hills on
Saturday. It is indeed fortunate
that this noison was on hand from
the allotment; for the ants were
completely destroying the crops as
they came up. J. E. Farley, Indian
Progress At Uintah & Ou ray
( Uta h) Truck and machine operators
from Camp #4 and this camp have com-
pleted a course in First-Aid, making
them competent to handle any in-
juries that might occur on or off
Our truck trail maintenance
project #40, the road crew, have
"been placing new culverts to let the
water that has collected in the
ditches a chance to drain off.
Six culverts were placed on
the Whiterocks, John Star Truck
Trail. One 24" x 16' and five 15"
x 16' .
Two culverts were put in on the
road being built into the Uintah
Hanger Station. One 24" x 14' and
one 15" x 14' . The road into Uintah
Ranger Station was straightened out
and built up by hauling dirt and grav-
el on it. This has been very slow as
it has been done by hand. We hope by
next week we 'can get some dump trucks
and our grader will be in working or-
der. Hay Langley , Camp Assistant .
Truc k Trail Maintenan ce At Fort
Tot ten ( North Dakota ) Truck trail
maintenance is well under way. We
are now reshaping Horse Shoe Lake
Truck Trail and putting in a few more
turn-outs and approaches. Rains have
slowed up operation somewhat.
The fourth windmill was erected
this week and one concrete stock wa-
tering tank poured. We have received
our second set of steel forms for
construction of concrete water tanks
which will enable us to speed up op-
eration. Chri stian A. Huber , Trail
Soil Erosion Control Ai PQ.ta_w.at-
omi (Kansas) A crew of 13 men have
been working on the Kickapoo Reserva-
tion this week on an erosion control
project on the Wapp Allotment. Two
check dams were completed this week,
making a total of 5 completed to
date on this allotment* also 52 cubic
yards of dirt were excavated in prep-
aration for the check dams. P.
Evere tt Sr.erry.
Dam Con struc tion At Sa lem Agency
( Oregon ) Weather conditions have been
fine. We pumped 2500 gallons of wa-
ter that had seeped into the ditch
out; (8 man-days) and excavated nine
cubic yards of blue clay in order to
make room for the concrete forms (20
man-days); and 25 yards of material
that had caved in over night was re-
Approximately 1,000 square feet
of concrete forms have been construc-
ted and are ready to be laid in the
ditch bottom (12 man-days) ; and a
small tool shed has been built to
house equipment and tools, (8 man-
days). Richard H. Allen, Sub-foreman .
Revegetating Pasture Land At
Chilocco Indian School ( Oklahoma )
Indian Emergency Conservation Work
has started on the Chilocco Reserva-
tion and is furnishing needed work
for many of the Indian boys that
live near the reservation. The tools
were checked out May 14 and work
started on May 17. Heha n Pop-pan .
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